Thursday, May 12, 2016

ATM#029

Salam Mahabbah Fillah 05 Syaaban 1437H.. Hari KHAMIS yang ceria dan penuh kasih sayangNYA. Selangit Kasih, Segunung Sayang, Selaut Cinta di Muara RINDU buat sahabat fillah HATI EMAS yang dicintai kerana ALLAH.

Dengan lafaz BISMILLAH..lakaran Warkah Pengikat HATI EMAS ini dimulakan..buat peringatan diri yang serba kekhilafan ini.

ALHAMDULILLAH.. Terima kasih Ya ALLAH atas nikmat Ihsan, Iman dan Islam anugerah teragungMU Ya ALLAH..

Puji dan puja kepada ALLAH SWT, TUHAN pemilik kata-kata yang benar, indah dan tersusun. Selawat dan salam kepada Nabi MUHAMMAD SAW yang apabila berkata-kata bukan daripada nafsu tetapi segala-galanya berpandukan wahyu. Lalu, kata-katanya sentiasa singkat dan tepat.


Ya ALLAH Ya RAHMAN Ya RAHIM..
Sampaikanlah pahala bacaan AL-QURAN kami kepada roh sahabat kami 
NORSHAFA ELYZA BINTI MUHA 


Ya ALLAH Ya RAHMAN Ya RAHIM..
Ampunilah dosanya,
kasihanilah dan sejahterakanlah dia..
Maafkanlah segala kesalahannya,
Muliakanlah kedatangannya dan lapangkanlah kuburnya.
Terimalah kebaikannya dan hapuskanlah kesalahannya dengan RAHMAT-MU..
Wahai Tuhan Yang Maha Pengasih lagi Maha Penyayang...
Allahumma Aamiin Ya Rabbal 'Aalamiin..

Kenangan Terindah Bersamamu Sahabat Fillah..
Allahyarhamah NURSHAFA ELYZA BINTI MUHA

AL-FATIHAH..

INNA LILLAHI WA INNA ILAIHI ROJIUN..
Darinya kami datang, dan kepadaNYA jua kami dikembalikan.

DOA sentiasa buatmu SAHABAT FILLAH..

JUZ 1 : UMMY
JUZ 2 : UMMY
JUZ 3 : MALA
JUZ 4 : ANIM
JUZ 5 : KHAIRIAH
JUZ 6 : KHAIRIAH
JUZ 7 : ANIM
JUZ 8 : NINI
JUZ 9 : AMZARI
JUZ 10 : IMAR
JUZ 11 : IMAR
JUZ 12 : SHARIFAH ZARINA
JUZ 13 : LIZA
JUZ 14: LIZA
JUZ 15 : SAADAH
JUZ 16 : SALIZA
JUZ 17 : ZUHAIZAH
JUZ 18 : ZUHAIZAH
JUZ 19 : IMRAN
JUZ 20 : NORAZIZI
JUZ 21 : ZAILIS
JUZ 22 : RADZI
JUZ 23 : IMRAN
JUZ 24 : NIK SHARA
JUZ 25 : NIK SHARA
JUZ 26 : LINDA
JUZ 27 : LINDA
JUZ 28 : MAZNAH
JUZ 29 : MAZNAH
JUZ 30 : INA

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#ALHAMDULILLAH.. Allah Tempat Meminta .. 05-08-1437H | 12-05-2016M KHAMIS

Wednesday, May 11, 2016

ATM#028

Salam Mahabbah Fillah 04 Syaaban 1437H.. Hari RABU yang ceria dan penuh kasih sayangNYA. Selangit Kasih, Segunung Sayang, Selaut Cinta di Muara RINDU buat sahabat fillah HATI EMAS yang dicintai kerana ALLAH.

Dengan lafaz BISMILLAH..lakaran Warkah Pengikat HATI EMAS ini dimulakan..buat peringatan diri yang serba kekhilafan ini.

ALHAMDULILLAH.. Terima kasih Ya ALLAH atas nikmat Ihsan, Iman dan Islam anugerah teragungMU Ya ALLAH..

Puji dan puja kepada ALLAH SWT, TUHAN pemilik kata-kata yang benar, indah dan tersusun. Selawat dan salam kepada Nabi MUHAMMAD SAW yang apabila berkata-kata bukan daripada nafsu tetapi segala-galanya berpandukan wahyu. Lalu, kata-katanya sentiasa singkat dan tepat.



Let Us Respect, Love and Care 
for Our Mothers Everyday


Ya ALLAH Ya RAHMAN Ya RAHIM...
Sampaikanlah kami kepada RAMADHAN..
Serahkanlah RAMADHAN kepada kami..
Ambillah ia daripada kami dengan menerima (amalan kami)
Allahumma Aamiin Ya Rabbal 'Aalamiin..


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#ALHAMDULILLAH.. Allah Tempat Meminta.. 04-08-1437H | 11-05-2016M 17:45 RABU

Wednesday, May 4, 2016

ATM#027

Salam Mahabbah Fillah 27 Rejab 1437H.. Hari KHAMIS yang ceria dan penuh kasih sayangNYA. Selangit Kasih, Segunung Sayang, Selaut Cinta di Muara RINDU buat sahabat fillah HATI EMAS yang dicintai kerana ALLAH.

Dengan lafaz BISMILLAH..lakaran Warkah Pengikat HATI EMAS ini dimulakan..buat peringatan diri yang serba kekhilafan ini.

ALHAMDULILLAH.. Terima kasih Ya ALLAH atas nikmat Ihsan, Iman dan Islam anugerah teragungMU Ya ALLAH..

Puji dan puja kepada ALLAH SWT, TUHAN pemilik kata-kata yang benar, indah dan tersusun. Selawat dan salam kepada Nabi MUHAMMAD SAW yang apabila berkata-kata bukan daripada nafsu tetapi segala-galanya berpandukan wahyu. Lalu, kata-katanya sentiasa singkat dan tepat.

Salam Isra' Mikraj 1437H..


S.M.I.L.E.

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#ALHAMDULILLAH.. 27-07-1437H | 05-05-2016M 14:21 KHAMIS

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

ATM#026

Salam Mahabbah Fillah 20 Rejab 1437H.. Hari KHAMIS yang ceria dan penuh kasih sayangNYA. Selangit Kasih, Segunung Sayang, Selaut Cinta di Muara RINDU buat sahabat fillah HATI EMAS yang dicintai kerana ALLAH.

Dengan lafaz BISMILLAH..lakaran Warkah Pengikat HATI EMAS ini dimulakan..buat peringatan diri yang serba kekhilafan ini.

ALHAMDULILLAH.. Terima kasih Ya ALLAH atas nikmat Ihsan, Iman dan Islam anugerah teragungMU Ya ALLAH..

Puji dan puja kepada ALLAH SWT, TUHAN pemilik kata-kata yang benar, indah dan tersusun. Selawat dan salam kepada Nabi MUHAMMAD SAW yang apabila berkata-kata bukan daripada nafsu tetapi segala-galanya berpandukan wahyu. Lalu, kata-katanya sentiasa singkat dan tepat.


Dear ALLAH,
Forgive me and have mercy upon me
I'm nothing
I'm no one
I'm alone
I've never been strong
I can't even S.M.I.L.E.

It is YOU Who gives me strength and courage
Through my toughest and hardest day
To keep going and never stop pedalling
Even it is always hurt to walk this journey all by myself

I'll keep going as long as..
YOU be with me all the time
I always know that..
YOU will always there..
for M.E.

ALLAH is my BEST COMPANION..
ALLAH is my BEST FRIEND..
ALLAH will never leave my side..
ALLAH is MY DESTINATION..

MAKE WAY TO ALLAH..
ALWAYS!

==*****===

Dari Dapur Hazwani AKJ

* Egg + Tuna Sandwich
* Tuna Sandwich
*Egg Sandwich
*Diet Sandwich Club
* Chicken Roti John
* Beef Roti John

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#ALHAMDULILLAH.. Allah Tempat Meminta.. 20-07-1437H | 28-04-2016M 10:01 KHAMIS

Monday, April 25, 2016

ATM#025

Salam Mahabbah Fillah 18 Rejab 1437H.. Hari SELASA yang ceria dan penuh kasih sayangNYA. Selangit Kasih, Segunung Sayang, Selaut Cinta di Muara RINDU buat sahabat fillah HATI EMAS yang dicintai kerana ALLAH.

Dengan lafaz BISMILLAH..lakaran Warkah Pengikat HATI EMAS ini dimulakan..buat peringatan diri yang serba kekhilafan ini.

ALHAMDULILLAH.. Terima kasih Ya ALLAH atas nikmat Ihsan, Iman dan Islam anugerah teragungMU Ya ALLAH..

Puji dan puja kepada ALLAH SWT, TUHAN pemilik kata-kata yang benar, indah dan tersusun. Selawat dan salam kepada Nabi MUHAMMAD SAW yang apabila berkata-kata bukan daripada nafsu tetapi segala-galanya berpandukan wahyu. Lalu, kata-katanya sentiasa singkat dan tepat.


Status of Occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in Western Johor Strait.


Introduction

Johor Strait separates the island of Singapore from Peninsular Malaysia over a distance of about 50 km between the estuaries of Sungai Pulai to the west and Sungai Johor to the east. The strait is divided by the Causeway linking Singapore to mainland Malaysia. One of the concerns is the occurrence of cultural eutrophication and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Cultural eutrophication is caused by excessive nutrient inputs which lead to the proliferation of phytoplankton. Several problems may arise, including the depletion of dissolved oxygen as the plant biomass decays and/or the production of toxins from harmful algal blooms (HABs). The incidence of eutrophication of coastal waters in South East Asia has increased dramatically in recent years, coinciding with increases in loading from domestic and industrial effluents. For example, occurrences of harmful algal blooms have been reported in Hong Kong (Lam and Ho, 1989, Ho and Hodgkiss, 1995), Philippines (Estudillo et al., 1984, Bajarias and Relox, 1996), Brunei (Jaafar et al., (1989), Papua New Guinea (Maclean, 1989), Sabah in East Malaysia (Ting and Wong 1989) and possibly the Malacca Straits of West Malaysia (Usup et al., 2002) and Indonesia (Azanza and Taylor, 2001). The need to establish baseline characteristics and to understand the potential for eutrophication is particularly important for Singapore as it continues to expand its coastal developments.

A traditional technique was employed to determine the structure of the phytoplankton community such as extracted chlorophyll measurements, in addition to overall biomass levels. While field measurements are important for understanding baseline conditions and explaining past trends, they are not as useful for prediction. Thus, a numerical model should be developed to assist coastal managers in the assessment of eutrophication issues.

The Johor Strait to the north of Singapore Island is an even narrower channel, typically 1.8 km wide. The Johor causeway connects Malaysia and Singapore and divides the strait into the eastern and western parts. The causeway limits the flow of water and essentially divides the strait into two separate semi- enclosed water bodies, i.e., the West Johor Strait and East Johor Strait with the large Malaysian city of Johor Bahru situated along the northern shoreline.

The climate of Singapore is typically wet equatorial, with high temperatures and large amounts of rainfall throughout the year. Although the local climate is relatively uniform, it is modified by the Southeast Asian monsoon regime, which introduces variations in wind speed and direction, cloudiness, rain and dry seasons over the year. The North-East Monsoon period falls between December and February and is characterized by heavy rains and winds from the north-east. The South-West Monsoon, between the months of June and August, is the drier monsoon with winds driven from the south and south-west. The two Inter-Monsoon periods (March-May; September-November) are periods of relative calm with intermittent rains and weak and variable winds. The oceanic circulation patterns driven by the monsoon winds play an important role in determining the distribution of plankton and other environmental parameters in the Singapore and Johor Straits.

The first recorded survey of plankton in Singapore waters was undertaken in the 1950s (Tham, 1953); a dominance of diatoms in the Singapore Strait was observed, with higher concentrations found in the Inter-Monsoon period, between April and May (2,500 cells L-1). Similar concentrations were also found in the Johor Strait and this was attributed to inflows from the Singapore Strait to the Johor Strait. A later study by Chou and Chia (1991) also confirmed the dominance of diatoms but since then, there has been no published data on phytoplankton until recently. In the last six years, detailed studies of the dynamics and composition of the phytoplankton community were undertaken using a variety of methods, ranging from microscopy, size-fractionated chlorophyll, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to flow cytometry (Gin et al., 2000; Gin et al., 2003). These different approaches help to bring out the different features of the phytoplankton community.



Map of Singapore showing the locations of sampling sites 
in the Singapore Strait and Johor Strait.



Harmful Algal Blooms in Malaysian Waters


Abstract

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) event have been increasingly reported in the country, not only of the frequency and severity of the events, but also involved more species than previously known. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) events have been increasingly reported in the country, not only of the frequency and severity of the events, but also involved more species than previously known. In this paper, a decadal review of HABs events in Malaysia is summarized. Bloom events caused by harmful dinoflagellate species including the shellfish poisoning events were highlighted. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is no longer restricted to Sabah coasts and Pyrodnium bahamense. Bloom of Alexandrium minutum was reported for the first time in the Peninsula with six persons hospitalized including one casualty after consuming the contaminated benthic clams. Algal blooms that are associated with incidence of massive fish kills have been reported from both east and west coasts of the Peninsula in conjunction to finfish mariculture loses. The culprits of these bloom events have been identified as the dinoflagellates, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Neoceratium furca, Prorocentrum minimum, Noctiluca scintillans and a raphidophyte, Chatonella ovata. In this paper, some of these HABs species were characterized morphologically and genetically, including their toxicity. Therefore, with the increase of coastal utilization and eutrophication, prevention, management and mitigation strategies, such as site selection, moving pens, clay spraying should be adopted to minimize the impact of these natural events.


Abstrak

Laporan kejadian ledakan alga berbahaya (HAB) yang kian meningkat bukan sahaja daripada segi kekerapan kejadian, tetapi juga melibatkan lebih banyak spesies yang tidak diketahui sebelumnya. Dalam kertas ini, pelbagai kejadian HAB pada dekad yang lepas telah dirumuskan. Kejadian ledakan akibat dinoflageat yang berbahaya dan keracunan kerang-kerangan juga dititik beratkan. Keracunan kerang-kerangan yang melumpuhkan (PSP) tidak lagi tertumpu hanya pada perairan Sabah dan Pyrodinium bahamense. Ledakan Alexandrium minutum telah dilaporkan untuk kali pertama di perairan Semenanjung dan menyebabkan enam mangsa keracunan akibat termakan lokan tercemar. Satu kes kematian direkodkan. Ledakan alga juga menyebabkan kejadian kematian ikan secara besar-besaran dan kerugian marikultur di perairan timur dan barat Semenanjung. Organisma penyebab kejadian tersebut telah dikenal pasti sebagai dinoflagelat; Chlocodinium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum minimum dan Noctiluca scintillans serta satu rafidofit; Chatonella ovata. Sebahagian daripada spesies HAB tersebut telah dikenal pasti secara morfologi, genetik dan toksisiti. Oleh itu, dengan peningkatan penggunaan perairan pantai dan proses eutrofikasi, strategi pencegahan, pengurusan dan mitigasi seperti pemilihan lokasi, pemindahan sangkar, penyemburan tanah liat harus diguna pakai dalam usaha meminimumkan impak kejadian semula jadi ini.

===******===

"Apabila berdepan dengan tekanan, kesulitan atau kegelisahan..
Carilah dan dekatkanlah dirimu dengan ALLAH..
dengan izinNYA kita akan beroleh ketenangan."





Ini aku. Ada kurangnya. Banyak lemahnya. Tidak pandai aku berpura-pura.. apatah lagi berlagak sempurna.

Untuk engkau, terima aku seadanya atau pergi sahaja jika tidak suka. Aku tidak akan memaksa kerana aku juga tidak suka dipaksa. 

Sungguh. Membentuk orang lain bagai bermain dengan ais. Lelah aku mengukir namun akhirnya ia tetap cair. Maaf. Harapanmu terlalu tinggi dan aku telah lelah mendaki. Lalu cukuplah sampai di sini. 

Biar aku dengan duniaku. 
Jangan diganggu.



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#ALHAMDULILLAH.. Allah Tempat Meminta ..18-07-1437H | 26-04-2016M 10:58 SELASA

Sunday, April 24, 2016

ATM#024

Salam Mahabbah Fillah 17 Rejab 1437H.. Hari ISNIN yang ceria dan penuh kasih sayangNYA. Selangit Kasih, Segunung Sayang, Selaut Cinta di Muara RINDU buat sahabat fillah HATI EMAS yang dicintai kerana ALLAH.

Dengan lafaz BISMILLAH..lakaran Warkah Pengikat HATI EMAS ini dimulakan..buat peringatan diri yang serba kekhilafan ini.

ALHAMDULILLAH.. Terima kasih Ya ALLAH atas nikmat Ihsan, Iman dan Islam anugerah teragungMU Ya ALLAH..

Puji dan puja kepada ALLAH SWT, TUHAN pemilik kata-kata yang benar, indah dan tersusun. Selawat dan salam kepada Nabi MUHAMMAD SAW yang apabila berkata-kata bukan daripada nafsu tetapi segala-galanya berpandukan wahyu. Lalu, kata-katanya sentiasa singkat dan tepat.


DOA KETIKA CUACA PANAS

"Tidak ada Tuhan kecuali ALLAH Yang Maha Esa.
Alangkah panasnya hari ini Ya ALLAH..
Lindungilah aku daripada panasnya api neraka."
(Hadis riwayat Ibnu Sunni)

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#ALHAMDULILLAH.. Allah Tempat Meminta.. 17-07-1437H | 25-04-2016M 09:35 ISNIN

Tuesday, April 19, 2016

ATM#023

Salam Mahabbah Fillah 12 Rejab 1437H.. Hari RABU yang ceria dan penuh kasih sayangNYA. Selangit Kasih, Segunung Sayang, Selaut Cinta di Muara RINDU buat sahabat fillah HATI EMAS yang dicintai kerana ALLAH.

Dengan lafaz BISMILLAH..lakaran Warkah Pengikat HATI EMAS ini dimulakan..buat peringatan diri yang serba kekhilafan ini.

ALHAMDULILLAH.. Terima kasih Ya ALLAH atas nikmat Ihsan, Iman dan Islam anugerah teragungMU Ya ALLAH..

Puji dan puja kepada ALLAH SWT, TUHAN pemilik kata-kata yang benar, indah dan tersusun. Selawat dan salam kepada Nabi MUHAMMAD SAW yang apabila berkata-kata bukan daripada nafsu tetapi segala-galanya berpandukan wahyu. Lalu, kata-katanya sentiasa singkat dan tepat.


Toxic tides: Risks from harmful microalgae


Home > News > Environment 
Monday, 7 April 2014

Harmful algal bloom, or red tide, off Sabah


There is a need to step up monitoring of our coastal waters for harmful algal blooms as they pose public safety concerns and economic risks.

ON the morning of Feb 11, fish farm operators in Tanjung Kupang, Johor, woke up to the ghastly sight of fish floating belly up in their pens in the Straits of Johor. In the days that followed, the fish kept dying.

The fish kill lasted two weeks, at the end of which commercially valuable stocks of snappers, estuary cods, seabass and threadfins in some nine farms were wiped out. One operator reported losses of RM150,000.

The mass mortality has since been blamed on a harmful algal bloom (HAB), or what is commonly referred to as red tide, a sudden population explosion of a toxin-producing microalgae.

While HABs are not often reported in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah is no stranger to the phenomenon. Its first HAB was reported in 1976 and this has been a fairly annual occurrence since. In January and February last year, shellfish poisoning claimed three lives and over 40 people fell ill in Sepanggar and Inanam, both near Kota Kinabalu, in the state’s worst case of HAB.

In fact, the Sabah Fisheries Department has not lifted its red tide alert which it had issued in October 2011. In January, following the sighting of reddish-brown waters off Kota Kinabalu, director Rayner Stuel Galid said the red tide warning was still in effect and the toxins which were detected for eight months of last year continued to be seen from Tuaran to Kuala Penyu.

These incidents of HABs may be signs of what’s to come. According to Universiti Malaya marine ecologist Dr Lim Po Teen, HABs are occurring more frequently and in more locations over the past decade, and involve previously unknown species.

Depending on the species, 
a sudden bloom of microalgae can turn sea water red, white, green, cloudy or foamy

In the Tanjung Kupang case, the offensive microalgae was identified as Karlodinium australe, which caught scientists by surprise. “This is the first time we are seeing a bloom of this species, which has never been reported as toxic,” says Dr Leaw Chui Pin, a marine molecular biologist who has worked on harmful microalgae for 14 years.

She says researchers conducted water sampling 10 days after the fish die-offs first happened, yet they still found a high density of the organism, between one million to two million per litre. She notes that the bloom affected even big fishes. Samples will be sent to their Japanese collaborators to measure the amount of toxins in the dead fish.

Leaw says scientists have characterised 40 species of harmful and potentially harmful microalgae in Malaysia, and foresee there may be more in our waters.

Water sampling in the Straits of Johor 
confirmed a bloom of the microalgae Karlodinium australe 
during the fish kills in Tanjung Kupang, Johor.

Noxious effects

Until 1990, problems related to paralytic shellfish poisoning were confined to the west coast of Sabah. In early 1991, it was recorded for the first time in Peninsular Malaysia when three people became ill after eating farmed mussels from Sebatu, Malacca. It was only years later that Alexandrium tamiyanavichi was confirmed as the toxin producer. Since then, HABs have been reported in various parts of the peninsula.

Microalgae inflict harm when they produce toxins which cause fish kills or which accumulate in shellfish, causing paralytic shellfish poisoning when the contaminated seafood is consumed by humans or marine mammals. Fish kills happen when the microalgae produce toxins which attack fish gills. This stalls the transportation of oxygen through the gills, hence suffocating the fish. Some toxins irritate the gills, triggering secretion of mucous which also lead to suffocation.

In 2001, six people in  Tumpat, Kelantan, were hospitalised and one of them died, 
after consuming shellfish contaminated with toxin from Alexandrium minutum.

Scientists say the term “red tide” is misleading as HABs do not just paint the water red; some turn the water cloudy, brown or foamy. The discolouration in the water is most visible in the morning. As the day warms up, the mass of microalgae will sink down to avoid extreme heat.

Not all algae blooms are harmful – even if it is red in colour. In Lumut, Perak and Penang, there have been blooms of Ceratium furca, which does not produce toxins although it has the characteristic red tide effect.

However, blooms of non-toxic microalgae can lead to fish die-offs too as the decomposition of the large mass can deplete the water of oxygen, creating hypoxic or anoxic conditions.

The sudden proliferation of microalgae is triggered by enrichment of waters (what is called eutrophication).

The increase in nutrients comes from land-based discharges such as fertiliser-laden runoffs from plantations and livestock farms, and sewage effluent.

“Harmful algal blooms are always related to increased activities in coastal areas,” says Lim, head of UM’s Bachok Marine Research Station in Kelantan.


Fuelling the growth

Natural upwelling can also release long-buried organic matter which enriches the water. Seabed dredging can also have the same effect. Lim points out that the algal bloom in Sabah last year coincided with the laying of water pipes on the sea bed between Kota Kinabalu and Pulau Gaya. Similarly, there was land reclamation work near the fish farms in Tanjung Kupang during the HAB.

Another source of coastal water enrichment is caged fish culture, especially when trash fish is used as feed.

“Any uneaten fish will quickly sink to the bottom and cause eutrophication. It is better to use feed that can stay suspended in the water column, instead of sinking very fast,” says Lim, who has researched on microalgae for 14 years.

Algae blooms tend to occur in sheltered places with restricted water movements, such as lagoons, ports and embayments. Sarawak does not have major problems with algae blooms due to strong tidal action which flushes the coastal waters.

Lim notes that shipping can transport harmful microalgae to distant places. This happens when ballast water, which may contain non-native species, is indiscriminately released in a foreign port. He says the species – Pyrodinium bahamense – that had caused paralytic shellfish poisoning in Sabah last year, has since been found at two sites in Peninsular Malaysia.

No paralytic shellfish poisoning was reported from Port Dickson, but Kuantan had one incident in November, although there was no fatality.

This species is very toxic and has always posed a problem for Sabah.

Because of its long history of red tides, the Sabah Fisheries Department has put in place surveillance of HABs. It involves regular water sampling and testing of molluscs and fish. If tests show over 400 mouse unit of the toxin per 100g of tissue, the shellfish cannot be sold.

No red tide warnings have ever been issued in Peninsular Malaysia since monitoring is almost non-existent and awareness on HABs, low. To avert the harmful and economically damaging effects of HABs, Lim says monitoring of our coastal waters has to be stepped up.

Currently, there is insufficient HAB scrutiny in Peninsular Malaysia, partly due to the lack of trained personnel. As such, the Science, Technology and Innovation Ministry and local scientists have organised training workshops on water sampling methods and identification of harmful microalgae (see note below).


Keep a lookout

Lim says more locations should be monitored, particularly sites with previously known HABs and those with fish and shellfish farms. One such place is Kuala Selangor, which has one of the largest cockle beds in the country.

He says the toxin-producing Gymnodinum catenatum has been detected there, although in low numbers.

This species can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning, but this has not been seen in Sabah, where it can also be found.

Our small and scattered seafood culture industry, however, is proving difficult to monitor. “The shellfish industry in New Zealand is big, so the producers there can afford to pay for regular testing. On the other hand, the value of mussels here is low, so how can the farmers pay for tests?” says Lim.

He asserts, though, that monitoring is crucial to ensure the safety of our seafood products for local consumption and export. In fact, Singapore has stopped imports of cockles from Kuala Selangor, citing a lack of proper monitoring of seafood safety. Fish farm operators should be aware of HABs in order to minimise risks. Lim says selection of mariculture sites based on previously known HABs cases and the ability to predict HABs will help them avoid unwanted losses. Sites with no record of potential harmful species and good water exchanges are preferable.

In a 2009 study on the Straits of Johor, researchers from Universiti Malaysia Sarawak and the Fisheries Research Institute found 11 microalgae species, with seven associated with blooms and harmful either as fish killers or toxin producers. The presence of these potentially harmful species should be considered in future expansion of aquaculture industry in the straits.

If a bloom does happen, fish farm operators can use plastic sheet skirtings to prevent the fish from direct contact with the harmful microalgae. In Japan, the use of moveable pens has been helpful. In the long run, however, the problem of enrichment of coastal waters has to be looked at.

“It all comes down to what we do on land,” says Dr Lim. A well-informed public will help ensure public safety. Once a warning on HAB has been announced, the public should avoid shellfish in the affected area. Symptoms of poisoning are seen within 30 to 60 minutes of consuming contaminated seafood.

The immediate signs are numbness or tingling of the lips and tongue, which spreads to the fingers and toes. Other symptoms are a sensation of lightness, salivation, intense thirst and temporary blindness. These symptoms are followed by a loss of muscular coordination, terminating in paralysis as well as inability to breathe. There is no known antidote for paralytic shellfish poisoning, so treatment is supportive, such as artificial respiration.

There will be a workshop on Systematic and Advanced Methodologies in Harmful Algae Monitoring on Aug 12-15 at the Bachok Marine Research Station in Bachok, Kelantan. The workshop is targeted at fisheries personnel and aquaculture farm operators. It will introduce new monitoring technology, techniques in field samplings, skills in qualitative and quantitive analyses, and options for future monitoring programmes.

The workshop is organised by the National Oceanography Directorate, the Science, Technology and Innovation Ministry, and Universiti Malaya.

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#ALHAMDULILLAH.. Allah Tempat Meminta.. 12-07-1437H | 20-04-2016M 17:09 RABU